Before applying acoustic treatment to your studio, you should ensure that you’ve set up your gear in a way that reduces acoustic problems. When the time comes to sound treat your studio, having your room set up correctly will potentially allow you to use less acoustic treatment, and save a fair bit of money.
As a disclaimer, this guide assumes that you already have some essential studio equipment like a chair, desk, speaker stands, and speakers.
Where to Place Your Desk
The main components that most home studios include are a high-quality office chair, music production desk, and a pair of studio monitors; there are some cardinal sins that you’ll want to avoid when setting up this equipment to prevent acoustic problems.
Placing your battle station in the corner of your room is a surefire way to guarantee bass buildup. Bass gathers in the corner of rooms, and the result is that you may end up mixing songs that are bass deficient. If your bassline sounds too loud on your studio monitors, your natural inclination will be to turn the bass down in the mix. When you play the song on a different system, you’ll realize your bassline is too quiet. Stay away from corners at all costs.
Figure 1: Desk incorrectly placed in the corner of a studio.
With the corners of your room out of the equation, you’re left facing your desk towards either the short wall or the long wall in your room. Symmetry is something that you’ll want to take into consideration here as well. Placing your desk and monitors closer to one wall than the other means that the sound waves propagating throughout your room will be interacting with it asymmetrically, making it much harder to predict and control acoustic problems.
Figure 2: Desk incorrectly placed asymmetrically in a studio.
Facing the long wall in your room isn’t necessarily the best idea either because you aren’t taking advantage of the room’s full length in the most efficient way possible. Room modes, which are the build-up of resonant frequencies in your room, can be overcome by moving your station closer to, or further away from the wall you’re facing.
The goal is to avoid placing your listening position directly on a standing wave’s node or anti-node. These concepts are a little beyond the scope of this guide, but they’re important to mention. If you’ve positioned yourself at a standing wave’s node, you’re going to hear a lack of bass, and if you’ve placed yourself at an antinode, you’re going to hear too much bass. Pushing your station slightly forward or backward may be enough to move you away from one of these nodes and create a more accurate mixing environment.
Figure 3: This is a standing wave. The red dots indicate nodes, and antinodes are found at the maximum values between nodes.
Treating low-end resonance with acoustic panels can be difficult, so it’s best to minimize bass resonance by positioning your set up appropriately. It’s better to prevent issues from occurring in the first place, rather than trying to deal with them using acoustic treatment.
Facing the room’s short wall will give you the most flexibility to move your set up backward or forward as needed, in an attempt to avoid placing yourself in a spot that lacks bass or has too much bass. Unless you’re working in a very large space, you should avoid facing the long wall of your studio.
Figure 4: Desk incorrectly placed facing the long wall of a small studio.
Room modes tend to pile up in the center of rooms, so placing your listening position here can be problematic as well. As mentioned, this may cause you to make poor mixing decisions when it comes to the low-end of the music you’re working on.
Figure 5: Listening position placed at the center point of a room.
There’s a rule known as “the 38% rule” that theorizes that setting up your listening position 38% away from the wall you’re facing is a going to provide the best compromise of peaks (antinodes) and nulls (nodes). This is more of a recommendation than an actual rule because every room is unique, but it’s a good starting point.
Figure 6: Listening position correctly placed 38% away from the front wall, following “the 38% rule.”
The best ways to determine the optimal listening position in your room involves using room calibration software like Room EQ Wizard along with a calibration microphone. Setting up your room correctly can be a rather time-consuming process, but the results are worth it. Your goal should be to achieve a near-flat frequency response at your listening position; this is the type of information that Room EQ Wizard or Sonarworks Reference 4 will allow you to view. When you start applying acoustic treatment, you’ll be able to optimize the frequency response of your room further, and effectively deal with acoustic problems like comb filtering, flutter echo, standing waves, and excessive reverberation.
Setting Speaker Height Correctly
Setting up your speakers at the appropriate height and angle can make a big difference in how effective they are. It takes just a few minutes to get speaker placement right, and the payoff is enormous.
I recommend picking up some height-adjustable speaker stands if you don’t already have them. This will allow you to position the acoustical axis of the speakers in line with your ears. There’s this misconception that you’re meant to align the main driver of each speaker with the height of your ears, but the acoustical axis is actually the center point between your speaker’s tweeter and main driver.
Figure 7: The main driver of a speaker incorrectly aligned with height of an ear.
Figure 8: The acoustical axis of a speaker correctly aligned with an ear.
By aligning the height of your ears with the acoustical axis of your speakers, you ensure that the wavefronts produced by both the tweeter and the main driver reach your ears at the same time; this can help to avoid phase distortion.
Let’s take a look at what would happen if you placed the tweeter 100 feet away from your listening position, and set the main driver 1 foot away. You would be able to hear a time delay between when the bass reaches your ears (almost immediately), versus when the high-frequency content reaches your ears (significantly delayed).
Aligning your speaker’s acoustical axis with your ear ensures that each driver (the tweeter and main driver) is equidistant from your ear, effectively avoiding any sort of time delay and various issues associated with that.
What about placing your speakers on their side? It looks sleek and I’m sure you’ve seen it done before. In Hugh Robinson’s article “Q. Can my monitors go on their sides?” via Sound on Sound, he states that “There are several technical reasons why turning monitor speakers on their sides isn’t generally a good idea, although some speakers are designed to be usable in this way (usually involving turning the tweeter waveguide around, and various other tweaks). The primary aspect is the stereo imaging, as you say. Conventionally, the tweeter and bass driver are aligned vertically so that the sounds from each arrive at the listener at the same time. Turning the speaker on its side will result in sounds from the two drivers arriving at different times. This usually results in a strange, unstable and disconnected stereo image, where the different frequency components of a specific sound source will appear to come from a different place. Generally, you won’t be able to reproduce a stable centre phantom image with the speakers configured in this way.”
Setting Speaker Angle Correctly
The distance your speakers are from your listening position doesn’t matter quite as much as the angle they’re positioned at relative to where you’re sitting. You’re meant to form an equilateral triangle between a point at the back of your head and the acoustical axis of each speaker.
To set up the angle of your speakers effectively, measure the distance between the acoustical axis of your speakers, and match that distance with the distance between each speaker’s acoustical axis and the back of your head. Regardless of how far away the speakers are from where you’re sitting, this will ensure that each speaker is angled 30 degrees off axis from the direction you’re facing, which is precisely what you want. This configuration will allow you to perceive stereo information accurately.
Figure 9: The acoustical axis of two speakers forming an equilateral triangle with a point directly behind the engineer’s head.
Choosing an Appropriate Speaker Size
Bigger speakers aren’t necessarily always better. How your speakers interact with the environment around them is known as speaker boundary interference response. The smaller your room, the more of an interference response you’re going to get.
Larger monitors will interact more heavily with the environment they’re in and can potentially cause more of an interference response than a pair of smaller monitors. Certain speakers like the Kali Audio LP-6s and LP-8s allow you to accommodate for interference response with a boundary compensation EQ.
As you may have noticed, the speakers in Figure 9 have been pushed close to the wall to create an equilateral triangle. Before you start screaming “bloody murder” because you’ve heard you shouldn’t place speakers close to the wall of your studio, you need to take the room’s size into consideration. In larger rooms, moving the speakers away from the wall can reduce interference response, but in smaller rooms, you may not have the space to push them further away from the wall.
Placing speakers closer to the wall of a small studio can help move low-end resonance up to the 300-400 Hz range. It’s going to be a lot easier and cheaper to treat resonance at 300-400 Hz as opposed to 20-100 Hz; the reason for this is that you require extremely dense material to handle resonant sub frequencies effectively. In this situation, you’re basically picking the lesser of two evils.
If you’re working with a subwoofer it’s incredibly important that you’ve integrated it with your room properly. Check out “How to Set Up a Studio Subwoofer” to ensure that your subwoofer is helping and not harming your listening environment.
The cracks in the glorious 38% rule are probably becoming much more apparent now. Variables like speaker placement and room size need to be taken into consideration, so placing your listening position a set distance away from the front wall of your studio won’t guarantee an optimal frequency response at your listening position. You should be using this guide as a starting point, and ironing out the problems you come across through the use of room calibration software, and eventually, acoustic treatment.
Alternative Studio Designs
This guide covers just one potential studio design, which seems to be one of the most practical and affordable for home studios. There are multiple approaches to studio design that you can take, so if you hear someone else mention a different design, it doesn’t necessarily mean they don’t know what they’re talking about.
For example, a reflection-free control room design has the speakers built into the wall and angled down towards the engineer to create a large reflection-free zone. This design requires construction, so if you live in an apartment it’s probably of no use to you. My point is that you should keep an open mind when it comes to studio designs, and take various factors into consideration when choosing the design that works best for you.
Once you’ve done all that you can to improve your listening environment by rearranging the position of your studio gear, you can move on to applying acoustic treatment. It’s essential that you set yourself up for success by addressing acoustic problems at a fundamental level, rather than trying to treat problems you’ve created for yourself later on. If you’ve applied the concepts in this guide to your studio set up, you should now be working with a much more acoustically refined space.
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